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Emerica The Westgate Mid Vulc
Iguazú Falls Iguazú Falls, Argentina-Brazil border.
Aerial views of Iguazú (Iguac̦u) Falls, on the border of Argentina and Brazil.

Aside from the Paraná’s main tributaries, there are few major rivers in Argentina. Wide rivers flow across the Gran Chaco flatlands, but their shallow nature rarely permits navigation, and never with regularity. Moreover, long-lasting summer floods cover vast areas and leave behind ephemeral swamplands. During winter most rivers and wetlands of the Gran Chaco dry up, the air chills, and the land seems visibly to shrink. Only three of the region’s numerous rivers—the Pilcomayo, Bermejo, and Salado—manage to flow from the Andes to the Paraguay-Paraná system in the east without evaporating en route and forming salt pans ( salinas ). The region’s largest rivers follow a veritable maze of courses during flood season, however.

In the Northwest the Desaguadero River and its tributaries in the Andes Mountains water the sandy deserts of adidas Copa Tango 184 Turf w9pSnEhO56
province. The principal tributaries are the Jáchal, Zanjón, San Juan , Mendoza, Tunuyán, and Diamante. In the northern Pampas, Lake Mar Chiquita , the largest lake in Argentina, receives the waters of the Dulce, Primero, and Segundo rivers but has no outlet. Its name, meaning “Little Sea,” refers to the high salt content of its waters.

Rivers that cross Patagonia from west to east diminish in volume as they travel through the arid land. The Colorado and UGG Mini Bailey Button Bling Womens aArWm6A
, the largest in the south-central part of the country, produce major floods after seasonal snow and ice melt in the Andes. Farther south the Santa Cruz River flows eastward out of the glacial Lake Argentino in the Andean foothills before reaching the Atlantic.

Soil types in Argentina range from the light-coloured saline formations of the high puna in the Northwest to the dark, humus-rich type found in the Pampas. Golden-brown loess soils of the Gran Chaco are sometimes lighter where salinity is excessive but turn darker toward the east in the Mesopotamian border zone. These give way to soils ranging from rust to deep red colorations in Misiones. Thick, dark soils predominate in the fertile loess grasslands of the Pampas, but lighter brown soils are common in the drier parts of northern Patagonia. Light tan arid soils of varying texture cover the rest of this region. Grayish podzolic types and dark brown forest soils characterize the Andean slopes.

nuclear weapon: Argentina and Brazil
Argentina and Brazil were engaged in competing programs to develop nuclear weapons, mostly under their respective military regimes, in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. The competition ended in the early 1990s as both countries canceled their programs, agreed to inspections,…
education: Spanish and Portuguese America
…Viceroy Vertiz y Salcedo in Argentina and two model schools, free for children of the poor, by Archbishop Francos y Monroy in Guatemala. In New Spain the College of the Vizcainas (1767) became the first all-girl lay institution.…
education: The heritage of independence
…1818, it was introduced in Argentina and then in Chile, Colombia, Peru, Mexico, and Brazil. Until well into the second half of the 19th century, it was to be the most widely used system.…
history of publishing: South America
Argentina had a greater magazine circulation than any other nation in South America until the mid-1970s, when total circulation decreased by almost one-half (it later began to recover slowly). The weekly rotogravure (1932–56) long had the highest periodical circulation in that country, closely followed…
children's literature: Latin America
…with the United States; belatedness—in Argentina the is hardly detectable before 1900; and especially an unbalanced polarity, with didacticism decidedly the stronger magnet. The close connection of the church with the child’s family and school life has encouraged a literature stressing piety, and this at a time when…


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Subjects included in this study were inpatients who are presumed to be sicker than outpatients; hence the validity of generalizing the findings to outpatients may be in question. However, both ibuprofen and acetaminophen are used in similar dosages and at similar intervals in inpatients as well as outpatients, irrespective of the severity of the primary disease. In addition, the antipyretic response associated with either drug does not correlate with the disease being viral or bacterial. Therefore we believe that the findings of this study may apply to hospitalized and outpatient febrile children alike.

Since the outcome of interest in this study was "effectiveness" rather than "efficacy", we did not exclude subjects receiving antibiotics from enrolment, or subjects with prior intake of antipyretics. However, antipyretics were stopped for 8 hours prior to enrolment, the time at which a febrile subject may receive antipyretic treatment in "real clinical life". It may be argued that the antipyretic effects of the drugs investigated are confounded by antibiotic administration and previous antipyretic intake. However, since this was a randomized clinical trial, we anticipated that the randomization process would dilute these effects by distributing the subjects equally among the two treatment groups. Indeed, the proportions of subjects receiving antibiotics and those with prior antipyretic intake were not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting adequate randomization. In addition, and since the desired sample size was not achieved, we adjusted for antibiotic and antipyretic intakes in the logistic regression model, which revealed both variables to be insignificant predictors of the antipyretic response at 6, 7, and 8 hours.

Despite the effectiveness of the combined antipyretic regimen shown in this study, we emphasize that our findings should not be used as a justification for advising this practice. The duration of our study was a short 8 hour interval, during which a single dose of ibuprofen and acetaminophen was administered. Although no renal, hepatic or gastrointestinal adverse effects were observed, no definite conclusions on the safety of the combined antipyretic treatment can be made before larger multi-dose clinical trials are conducted demonstrating its safety. In addition, the antipyretic advantage of the combined antipyretics may be attenuated with multiple dosing of ibuprofen and acetaminophen, and become comparable to repeated ibuprofen mono-therapy. A similar situation has been reported by Walson et al. [ 16 ], where multi-dose treatments with 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg ibuprofen for 24–48 hours resulted in equivalent antipyresis to 10 mg/kg ibuprofen or 15 mg/kg acetaminophen, after the second dose and continuing to 24–48 hours later.

A single administration of alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen doses to febrile children appears to be a more effective antipyretic than ibuprofen alone. It is our position, however, that combined treatment should not be used in clinical practice before larger clinical trials confirm the safety and effectiveness of this regimen.


This study was funded by the Medical Practice Plan of the Faculty of Medicine at the American University of Beirut, Grant number 686056. We are grateful to all the pediatric nurses at the American University of Beirut Medical Center and Najjar Hospital for their enthusiastic and dedicated work that made this study possible. We also thank the following physicians for approving the enrolment of their patients in the study: from AUBMC, Drs. Fadi Bitar, Youssef Comair, Ibrahim Dabbous, Ghassan Dbaibo, Nabil Kanaan, Suheil Lakkis, Salman Mroueh, Salim Musallam, Samar Muwakkit, Mounir Obeid, Hiba Osman, Bassem Saab, Said Saghieh, Sami Sanjad, Nabil Shararah, Jinan Usta, and Khaled Yunis; from Najjar Hospital, Drs. Bassam Abou Merhi, Lama Abyad, Mohamad-Bilal Arab, Iman Awada, Nada Bukhari, Zuheir Fleifel, Mirvat Hemadeh, Afif Kabbani, Ziad Naja, Youssef Safawi, Mohamad Shebbo, Zafer Shehadeh, Maha Shouman, Mohannad Tafankaji, Ikram Tannir and Bilan Yaman. We are grateful to Dr. Samer Jabbour for his help in the design of the study, to Julphar (Gulf Pharmaceutical Industries, United Arab Emirates) for their generous donation of all the drugs investigated, and to Miss Huda Dagher, our research assistant, whose dedication and enthusiasm made this study possible.

12916_2005_67_MOESM1_ESM.doc Additional File 1: CONSORT checklist: BMC Consort.doc (DOC 50 KB)
12916_2005_67_MOESM2_ESM.pdf Authors’ original file for figure 1
12916_2005_67_MOESM3_ESM.doc Authors’ original file for figure 2

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Submitted 14 January, 2010; originally announced January 2010.

Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures

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doi 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.094502

Visualizing supercurrents in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions with various arrangements of 0 and πsegments

Authors: C. Gürlich , S. Scharinger , M. Weides , H. Kohlstedt , CARLOS by Carlos Santana Gilmore qS8SbkGb
, E. Goldobin , D. Koelle , R. Kleiner

Abstract : Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic barrier can have positive or negative critical current depending on the thickness d_F of the ferromagnetic layer. Accordingly, the Josephson phase in the ground state is equal to 0 (a conventional or 0 junction) or to π ( π junction). When 0 and π segments are joined to form a "0- π junction", spontaneous supercurrents around the 0- π boundary can… ▽ More Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic barrier can have positive or negative critical current depending on the thickness d_F of the ferromagnetic layer. Accordingly, the Josephson phase in the ground state is equal to 0 (a conventional or 0 junction) or to π ( π junction). When 0 and π segments are joined to form a "0- π junction", spontaneous supercurrents around the 0- π boundary can appear. Here we report on the visualization of supercurrents in superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) junctions by low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM). We discuss data for rectangular 0, π , 0- π , 0- π -0 and 20 \times 0- π junctions, disk-shaped junctions where the 0- π boundary forms a ring, and an annular junction with two 0- π boundaries. Within each 0 or π segment the critical current density is fairly homogeneous, as indicated both by measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current and by LTSEM. The π parts have critical current densities j_c^π up to 35\units{A/cm^2} at T = 4.2\units{K} , which is a record value for SIFS junctions with a NiCu F-layer so far. We also demonstrate that SIFS technology is capable to produce Josephson devices with a unique topology of the 0- π boundary. △ Less

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